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Racisme et discrimination systémiques
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On August 29 2018, the Executive Committee of the City of Montréal gave the Office de consultation publique de Montréal (OCPM) the mandate to organize and hold a consultation on systemic racism and discrimination.

The Right of Initiative

The goal of this public consultation, stemming from the Right of Initiative, is to promote public discussion leading to constructive, innovative and mobilizing proposals to counter systemic racism and discrimination.

Systemic Racism and Discrimination: Definitions

Systemic racism occurs when an institution or a group of institutions create or maintain racial inequity. This can be unintentional and does not necessarily mean that the personnel of the organization in question is racist.”

Systemic discrimination is the result of the dynamic interaction between decisions and attitudes that are tinged with prejudice, as well as organizational models and institutional practices that have prejudicial effects (intended or not) on groups protected by the Québec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.”

The Montréal Population

According to the socio-demographic profile of the 2016 census

The City of Montréal is home to 1,704,694 residents,

  • 38% of the population, i.e. 639,845 people, were born abroad and are considered first-generation immigrants.
  • One-fifth of the population (20.5%) was born in Canada and has at least one parent born abroad (second-generation immigrants).
  • More than one-third (34%) of the Montréal population (568,570 people) identifies as a visible minority.
  • 0.7% of the population (12,035 people) is of Aboriginal identity.

The People Affected

Within the framework of this consultation, the commission will focus on groups that are most susceptible to become victims of systemic racism and discrimination and will take into account intersectionality.

Consultation documents

You can view the “Consultation Document” (Document 3.1) in the documentation file available on the consultation page.

The OCPM is asking you several open questions on topics mentioned in the City of Montréal’s “Consultation Document” (Document 3.1); these questions are intended to help reflexion on the matter. You may also use the “other opinions” option to express your thoughts on any other topic of interest or concern to you within the framework of the Consultation on Systemic Racism and Discrimination within the jurisdiction of the City of Montréal.


The City of Montréal assumes three roles in matters pertaining to housing.

  • It has the power to act to ensure that residential buildings are properly maintained and hygienic.
  • It finances a reference service offering guidance for households that are victims of a disaster or are homeless, in cooperation with the Office municipal d’habitation de Montréal (OMHM).
  • It creates and maintains a balanced and diverse offer of housing, notably through subsidy programs jointly funded with the Québec Government, to:
    • Support home ownership.
    • Help with renovations.
    • Develop social and community housing.

Questions to guide your thoughts on housing

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination in housing?


The City of Montréal intervenes on many levels in matters pertaining to culture.

  • It manages cultural facilities, primarily libraries and the Maisons de la culture.
  • In cooperation with cultural organizations, it offers artistic activities for amateurs and presents a variety of shows.
  • It supports artists, public events and festivals.
  • It funds public art.

Although 33% of Montréal’s population are from diverse origins and 0.6% is Aboriginal, only 13% of the works exhibited in Montréal venues were produced by artists of diversity.

Questions to guide your thoughts on culture

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination in regards to culture?

Sports and Recreation

The City of Montréal offers its residents a large number of outdoor and indoor facilities (gymnasiums, swimming pools, skating rinks, playing fields, etc.), as well as community gardens and equipment for groups of all ages.

Its partners, local and regional organizations specializing in recreation and physical activity, also offer thousands of activities free of charge or at very little cost.

The City of Montréal must ensure that all citizens can take advantage of these opportunities and that its offer meets a variety of expectations and needs.

Questions to guide your thoughts on sports and recreation

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination in sports and recreation?

Racial and Social Profiling

The City of Montréal has launched an initiative to combat all forms of racial and social profiling within its units and personnel. This initiative stems from a public consultation conducted jointly by the Commission de la sécurité publique and the Commission sur le développement social et la diversité montréalaise. The consultation resulted in 31 recommendations that the municipal administration has committed to implement.

The actions taken by the City of Montréal include the elaboration of indicators to evaluate profiling behaviours in certain units such as the municipal court, the human resources department, the Société de transport de Montréal (STM), and the Office municipal d’habitation de Montréal.

The City of Montréal has set up a committee to analyse its municipal by-laws, STM regulations and the road safety code, among others, to determine if they induce racial and social profiling.

In its Plan stratégique pour soutenir le personnel du SPVM en matière de prévention du profilage racial et social 2018-2021 the Service de police de la Ville de Montréal (SPVM) outlines a series of actions regarding racial and social profiling, including the formal acknowledgement of its existence, the establishment of an independent study regarding questions asked by police officers and considering the context, measures to prevent racial and social profiling behaviors and the annual submission of a report on various aspects related to racial and social profiling.

Questions to guide your thoughts on racial and social profiling

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination with regards to racial and social profiling?

Employment and Entrepreneurship

To carry out all that falls under its jurisdiction, the City of Montréal has 26,000 employees (General information document 3.2) within its ranks, involving hundreds of trades and professions. The City of Montréal abides by the laws of Québec and because it has more than 100 employees, it is subject to the Act respecting equal access to employment in public bodies.

Among the City’s 20,062 permanent employees,

  • 2,119 (10.6%) people identified as a visible minority,
  • 1,097 (5.5%) as an ethnic minority,
  • 68 (0.3%) as Aboriginal people,
  • 147 (0.75%) as people living with a handicap.

Among the 5,625 temporary employees,

  • 1,425 (25.3%) identified as a visible minority,
  • 462 (8.2%) as an ethnic minority,
  • 15 (0.3%) as Aboriginal people,
  • 29 (0.5%) as people living with a handicap.

Questions to guide your thoughts on employment and entrepreneurship

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to how to combat systemic racism and discrimination in employment and entrepreneurship?

The Fight against Inequality

As a local government, the City of Montréal acts in a manner that is both meaningful and in close proximity to the people. It supports and stimulates social development by fighting exclusion and poverty.

According to Statistics Canada data in 2016 (Consultation Document 3.1) (

  • 34% of new arrivals,
  • 27% of Aboriginal people living in Montréal,
  • 24% of immigrants

live on a low income. This means that they spend a significant portion of their income on necessities.

Among the homeless,

  • 20% are immigrants,
  • 12% are of Aboriginal origin, while only 0.6% of Montréal residents are of Aboriginal origin,
  • 25% of the Aboriginal people are of Inuit origin, although they represent only 5% of Montréal’s Aboriginal population. 

Questions to guide your thoughts on the fight against inequality

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination and inequality?

Urban Planning

The Schéma d’aménagement et de développement de l’agglomération de Montréal, which has been in effect since April 2015, establishes the direction for the next ten years in terms of urban planning and development.

This direction focuses, among other things, on:

  • The quality of the living environment,
  • The vitality of the agglomeration and the poles of activities,
  • The enhancement of areas of interest,
  • Land-use designation and occupation density.

The Urban Plan is the reference document for matters pertaining to City of Montréal urban planning. Adopted in 2004, it was significantly amended in 2016 to ensure its consistency with the Schéma d'aménagement et de développement de l'agglomération de Montréal.

The Consultation Document (Document 3.1) mentions that the boroughs intervene by regulating the use of appropriate space to be used for places of worship.

Questions to guide your thoughts on land-use planning

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to how to combat systemic racism and discrimination in urban planning?

Citizen Participation

Outside of the electoral process leading to the elections of the mayor of Montréal, borough mayors and city councillors, the City of Montréal promotes the inclusion and participation of the greatest possible number of citizens in the democratic processes: the question periods at city council and borough councils. 

During the municipal elections in 2017, out of a total of 298 candidates (General information document 3.2)

  • 1% of the candidates was of Aboriginal origin,
  • 3% of the candidates were people with a handicap,
  • 14% of the candidates were members of visible minorities,
  • 14% of the candidates were members of ethnic minorities.

Of the 103 elected official at the City of Montréal (Profile of City of Montréal elected officials)

  • Five (5%) elected officials identify as an ethnic minority,
  • Three (3%) elected officials identify as a visible minority,
  • One (1%) elected official identifies as a person with a handicap,
  • No elected officials identify as Aboriginal people.

Questions to guide your thoughts on citizen participation

  • What problems do you see?
  • Do you have any ideas as to what should be done to combat systemic racism and discrimination with regards to citizen participation?

Other opinions

Do you have other ideas to what should be done to comabt systemic racism and discrimination?


Voici toutes les contributions reçues dans le cadre de ce questionnaire.

Veuillez noter que nous avons conservé les textes originaux sans procéder à aucune modification ou correction dans les limites de la netiquette de l'Office.

1. Opinion présentée par Yvette Salinas

I identify as a Woman of Color who moved into NDG, or more specifically the St. Raymond sector of the CDN/NDG borough. I rapidly became involved in the community, specifically cultural and family organizarions ans event planning. The problem is many of these orgs claim to be seeking diversity and inclusion, as those were buzzwords at the time, without being willing to "give up" power from its White directors and board members to any BIPOC leadership. They wanted to keep talking about Diversity and Inclusion, especially in regards to promotion and fundraising, without following the practice themselves.
Have leadership training and support for BIPOC that are interested in becoming leaders in their community. Require organizations to have diversity in the senior staff and on their Board to have access to local funding.

2. Opinion présentée par Julien Feldman

Des politiques dans les commissions scolaires pour apporter une appuie concrète aux étudiants des minorités visibles.

Julien Feldman
- commissaire d’école CSEM

Vous pouvez voir toute la documentation et toutes les informations relatives à cette consultation sur la page dédiée.

Page de la consultation publique

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